12 Electric Bicycle Parts Name and Their Purposes

by | Sep 22, 2023 | Electric Bicycle

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The use of electric bicycles as an affordable and environmentally friendly mode of transportation is growing in popularity. It is essential to familiarize yourself with the many electric bicycle parts in order to comprehend how these clever vehicles work.

Electric bicycles have made an enormous difference to current times full of many technologies. It has made commuting easier and environmentally beneficial, providing benefits to both individuals and the environment.

The most fascinating thing, though, would be to understand the electric bicycle parts names and how they are made. Understanding their features will additionally assist you in understanding how these e-bikes operate as a whole.

We will give a thorough analysis of the parts that make up electric bicycles in this post, “Electric Bicycle Parts Explained.” We will also be breaking down the names and functions of e-bikes parts in this blog.

After reading this article, you should have a firm grasp on the many components that make up electric bicycles and how they function together to power these cutting-edge examples of environmentally friendly transportation.

let’s dive right in.

What Is and How Does an Electric Bicycle Operate?

Since the electric bike is an electric device, there are some technical aspects to its operation. To put it in layman’s terms, you start by pedaling your bike, which transfers your energy to the engine/motor and propels you ahead.

Though this looks a lot like a regular bike, let’s examine how an electric bike functions.

Since they are responsible for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, the motor & battery serve as the essential parts of an electric cycle. Thus that is the forward motion of an electric bike or cycle.

Bike sensors sense the rider’s pedaling motion and turn on the motor as soon as they do. By doing this, the rider’s pedaling effort is increased by an extra power boost.

A controller is used to regulate the battery’s energy flow. With the rider’s input as a basis, it adjusts the bike’s speed and acceleration by controlling the cycle’s power output. This is how a bike functions.

We’ve just scratched the surface of the electric bicycle’s many parts with this brief discussion of just three. As we start off, let’s take a closer look at all of them.

Read our in-depth post on how to buy an electric bike if you’re thinking about making the purchase.

Read more: Pros & Cons of Owning an Electric Bicycles

Parts of an Electric Bicycle & Their Functions

1. E- Bike Battery

A20 E- Bike.

The most costly component of an e-bike system is usually the battery, which serves as the vehicle’s power source. When needed, it serves as a storage device for energy that powers the electric motor. For this reason, it is regarded as a fuel source that needs to be carefully maintained.

Most e-bike batteries in the past were made of lead acid, nickel cadmium, or NiMH, but lithium-ion batteries are now nearly the only type available. With the advancement of lithium battery technology, these batteries became lighter, more powerful, more dependable, incredibly light and had longer lifespan. A contemporary lithium battery constructed with premium cells is currently 8–10 times lighter than a lead battery from the past, and if misused, it should last for more than 5–6 years of continuous operation.

Through the use of an electrical charger, these batteries are restored. Never overcharge since that will shorten its lifespan.

For a highly clean exterior look, factory e-bikes frequently incorporate the battery pack into the bike’s frame tubing. Everything looks wonderful until it’s time to change the battery and you discover that the bike model has been discontinued and no one makes the specific battery pack you need.

Batteries for conversion kits are often made to fit on a rear carrier rack or on the downtube within the triangle. They are readily replaceable and upgradeable in the future because they are not built into the bike.

A. Charger for batteries

As its name implies, a battery charger is used to replenish a depleted battery. Any AC outlet’s power is converted to the proper DC via charger so that the battery may be charged.

Using the bike’s original charger to charge e- bike battery is highly recommended; do not use one from another business. In order to prevent current loss and ensure that your battery receives charge, prior to charging, check the battery charger for wear and rips.

In addition, only charge the battery when it is almost dead; that is, charge when the battery level is around 20% and never allow the battery to discharge below that point.

2. Motor (mid-drive vs. hub motor)

The MOTOR is one of the most important parts of an electric bicycle, just behind the battery. This helps the cyclist by assisting with the pedaling, which makes riding a bike simpler.

Now let’s examine two popular kinds of motors found in electric cycles:

I. Motor hub

The reason a hub motor is named a hub motor is because it is located inside the hub, close to the front or back wheel. Whether the bike is being propelled forward by the throttle or by pedalling, its main purpose is to drive the wheel directly.

The electric motor of a hub motor is located inside the front or rear bicycle hub, making the conversion process quite easy: just swap out a standard bike wheel for the powered one.  

These days, almost all e-bike motors are permanent magnet Brushless DC (BLDC) motors, which get their motor power from three-phase cables. They normally feature five hall sensor wires in addition to these three phase wires for powering the hub, which enable the electronics to detect the motor location and spin smoothly at low speeds. Either of these wires can be divided into independent connections or combined into a single socket that houses the signal and power wires.

Hub motors come in two sizes: tiny and with a low output, or large and powerful. They can also be geared or direct drive. 

The application has a major role in selecting the best motor. Larger, heavier motors are needed for demanding applications like transporting freight or lengthy, steep hill climbs, while lighter, more portable engines are sufficient for users who only need a little boost over largely level terrain.

The simplicity, affordability, and ease of use of hub motors are well-known. With barely any maintenance needed, they offer a very pleasant & smooth ride.

These kinds of motors may be found in standard electric bicycles, budget electric mountain bikes, hybrid electric bicycles, and so on.

When it comes to hub motor speed and torque, the Indian government limits the top speed for these electric cycles, so you can only reach a maximum speed of up to 25 km/h with usual torque.

II. Mid-drive Motor 

Nevertheless, the bike’s bottom bracket—which houses the crankset and pedals—is the place where the mid-drive engine is fastened. The placement’s design enables the motor to use the gears in the bike’s drivetrain to transmit power.

The mid-drive motor’s ability to fully use the gears due to its higher torque is by far its greatest benefit. On these motors, the speed will also remain constant.

In mountain, cargo, and dirt  electric cycles, as well as in certain hybrid models, mid-drive motors are typically utilized.

3. Controller

A lot of individuals are not aware of the motor controller, yet it is a crucial part of any e-bike’s hardware since a brushless motor can’t be connected directly to a battery pack. There are two essential purposes for the motor controller.

1) It transforms the battery pack’s DC power into three phases of alternating current for the motor windings, which is necessary for the motor to spin; and

2) It may continually modify the voltage applied to the motor in response to the throttle signal from the user, pedal sensors, and different current restrictions, ranging from 0V to the full voltage of the battery pack.

With its ability to manage electric power including the flow of power (current) through the battery to the motor, the controller acts as the system’s processing unit. Based on the rider’s input, it produces the appropriate output.

To improve the rider’s experience, the controller makes sure that power is delivered smoothly and efficiently. Furthermore, it has the ability to regulate the bike’s user interface and set speed limitations, both of which improve the bike’s overall performance.

4. Throttle

Electric bicycle Handlebar

By twisting a grip that is installed on the handlebar or pushing a throttle lever, a rider may control the amount of power they receive from the motor in the most straightforward and familiar way possible. No matter how hard they pedal, a throttle allows the rider complete control over the power output from the electric motor at any given moment.

To make it conveniently available for riders, it is fastened to the handlebar. It instructs the controller to activate the motor in order to make the bicycle go ahead whenever it is pressed or twisted.

Its primary function is to let the rider to quickly get moving once the bike has been started from a stop.

Though the connections they employ are all over the place, almost all controllers include a throttle input socket. Fortunately, the throttle signal is among the few components in the e-bike business that has been extremely well standardized.

While the throttle is off, it sits at around 0.8–0.9V, and when it is engaged, it rises to 3.6-4V. Almost all throttles employ hall sensors along with a magnet to sense the throttle position.

Both thumb or lever throttles, which work by pressing the thumb against a paddle, and twist grip throttles, which work by turning a handgrip, are the two most popular types of throttles. When it comes to reliability, throttles are rather inexpensive, despite the fact that they frequently seem cheap in use.

5. The PAS (pedal assist sensor)

On an e-bike, the pedal assist system is called PAS. With its help, the cyclist may put less effort into pedalling and more into enjoying the trip. Upon the rider’s pedaling motion, a sensor within the PAS transmits commands to the controller, which then triggers the motor in accordance with the instructions.

The PAS engages the motor and provides the necessary amount of assistance when the rider begins pedalling continuously. Moreover, the pedal assist has several settings, with higher ones requiring less pedalling effort.

6. The Sensor of Torque

An e-bike’s torque sensor is installed to improve the bike’s overall performance. However, You may ask How?

It works by measuring the torque, or force, that the rider applies to the pedal as they pedal, and then it gives the controller real-time feedback. On the basis of this, the controller modifies the motor’s power respectively.

7.  E-Brakes

It’s common knowledge that all bicycles, whether electric or conventional, are equipped with brakes. However, what does this “E” mean?

“E” represents electric. Sure, That’s right, you read. . An optional gadget called an e-brake sensor is meant to alert the motor controller when the brake levers are being applied.

The motor of an electric bicycle assists or controls the braking system electronically. Though a little more sophisticated and complex, these brakes perform duties that are comparable to those found on conventional brakes.

The controller receives a signal from the rider when they pull the brake lever, which causes the motor to stop as well. In this manner, the auto cut-off functionality of the E-brakes functions.

People would desire an e-brake sensor for an e-bike for two reasons. To ensure that the motor always cuts off when you depress the brake levers, one option is to install a safety cutoff. Turning on regenerative braking for hub motor systems that allow regen is the second reason.

This enables you to gradually use the brakes, causing the engine to shift from propelling the bike to offering a constant and gentle braking force. The energy used for braking is then directly transferred back into the battery pack for recharge.

In addition to add-on sensors that may be mounted on your current brakes to generate the same switch signal, mechanical & hydraulic brake levers are now widely available with e-brake switch sensors integrated right in.

8. Display/Screen

Nowadays, nearly all complete ebikes & ebike kits come with a reasonably comprehensive display computer that serves as a dashboard for monitoring functions. When ebikes first came out, most systems featured a few LEDs to show the battery level. Nowadays, The electric bicycle’s dashboard, or display, shows important data including distance traveled, speed, battery charge, and amount of pedal assistance, among other things.

It is exactly as its name implies—it presents the most important data in an extremely approachable way on the screen. The rider may alter the settings as they go, and they are displayed for easy viewing.

This is a crucial and useful element that has great significance for safety reasons.

Nevertheless, there is absolutely no standardisation in the function, communication bus (I2C, Canbus, LIN, UART, etc.), or communication protocol of the displays that link to ebike motor controllers, in contrast to displays for computers or televisions, which have a common protocol. It is rare that you can find an alternative display for your specific controller, or that you can switch to a different make of motor controller and have it work with your display. Most displays are designed to be paired with a specific motor controller and for a specific set of kit functions.

9. Torque Arm 

Twisting or spinning of the motor axle is stopped by the torque arm. When a person pedals an electric cycle, the electric motor often produces a lot of torque. With electric bicycles with great power, this is particularly important.

Throughout these procedures, this torque arm serves as the motor’s protection, ensuring that it remains in place and does not slip out. Before being attached to the frame dropout, the torque arm is mounted on the bike’s non-drivetrain side.

The torque applied to the motor axle by rotating the wheel ahead on hub motor drives results in an equivalent and opposite torque. If the axle is not braced against rotation, it will spin in the opposite direction. That’s what a torque arm is for.

A large, flat-sided axle was nearly always utilised by hub motors from China to fit into bicycles. The axle’s ability to stay stationary was dependent upon its flat surface. Up until a certain point, that may be useful, but it’s frequently insufficient for bikes built today that use metal or composite elements.

To further prevent spinout in that scenario, extra torque arms might be added above the axle outside the dropout. The torque arm is included into the motor axle design of other motors (including our GMAC and All Axle hubs and all the early non-chinese hubs like Tidalforce, Heinzmann, Sanyo, etc.).

In contrast to afterthought torque arms, it is integrated into the motor and may be designed for greater robustness and simpler installation.

10. Hall Sensor

Since hall sensors are frequently discussed in relation to component interchangeability & troubleshooting, we bring them up here rather than because they are a distinct component of an e-bike system. Typically, three hall sensors are used in three-phase brushless DC motors to detect the rotor’s displacement.

The rotor of an electric bike motor has a magnetic sensor called a Hall effect sensor, which plays a vital function. By detecting magnetic fields and communicating this information to the controller, it makes accurate motor placement possible.

Thus, in order to achieve maximum efficiency, the motor modifies its power output. No matter the terrain or load, this enables the motor to run at a constant pace. Thus, the electric bike is capable of extremely efficient long-distance riding.

Certain basic motor controllers rely solely on these sensors to operate because they timing the varying current via the three-phase wires using the hall pattern. Certain more sophisticated controllers make no use of hall sensors at all and instead attempt to determine the rotor position and proper phase timing by using signals from the phase leads’ voltage and/or current flow.

We refer to this as sensorless motor operation. Running a sensorless motor when it is spinning is rather simple, but it might be difficult to maintain while the motor is still or moving very slowly. Lastly, some controllers only employ the hall sensors during the first phase of operation, transitioning to sensorless mode as soon as the motor reaches a specific speed.

It is crucial to ascertain whether your motor includes hall sensors before combining brushless motors & motor controllers, as this will dictate which controllers work with which motors.

Its sensor also aids in guarding against overload-related damage to the motor. Additionally, it guarantees that the motor is running within the proper specifications.

This is a list of the most important parts of an electric bicycle. There are many more, like frames, tires, wheels, seats, and so on. Read our in-depth page on bicycle parts explained to understand more about the nomenclature of bicycle parts.

How to Take Care of Your Electric Cycle

These are some simple procedures that might help you keep your electric cycle in good working order.

1. Maintain the health of your battery

The e-bike’s battery is the bike’s heart; as such, it requires regular maintenance, including checking for signs of damage and wiping away any corrosion from the connections.

  • As directed by the manufacturer, store the battery according to the rules.
  • Use the original charger that came with the battery (supplied by the brand).
  • As much as possible, keep the batteries out of very hot or cold environments, and make sure it is always correctly installed on the bike.
  • Store it correctly while it is not in use, out of direct sunlight, in a safe and dry place. By doing so, you eliminate the possibility of destructive chemical reactions occurring within the battery.
  • Additionally, take care not to overcharge or undercharge the batteries. As a result, the battery’s lifespan and efficiency are both shortened.

2. To ensure smooth operation, lubricate the drivetrain.

If you want your e-bike to operate smoothly, clean the drivetrain (chains, cassettes, etc.) of any dirt and debris. In order to lower friction and improve the bike’s performance, lubricate the chains.

3. Ensure that your tires are kept at their ideal pressure.

Your e-bike will use more battery power while offering you less speed if the air pressure is lower. Maintaining proper tire pressure is essential for maximum performance for a comfortable ride.

Additionally, check for wear and tear on the parts and repair them if necessary since they also contribute to an extended battery life.

Conclusion on Electric Bicycle Parts Names Explained 

Regarding electric bicycles, whether they are components or complete bikes, there are many things. There are countless parts and purposes that are interconnected.

In order to have a better understanding of how an electric cycle functions, it is imperative that we examine and evaluate them. Thus, when it comes to e-bikes, what are the dos & don’ts? Bringing all the technical details together in one location was the goal of this blog.

With any luck, this post has clarified the names and purposes of the electric bicycle parts. Please leave any comments below if you happen to have any inquiries or recommendations, and I will get in touch with you ASAP!


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